The focus of the EMDR for First Responders and Protective Service Personnel Special Interest Group (SIG) of EMDRIA is to create an international assembly of professionals to promote collaboration, training, treatment, and research for EMDRIA therapists who work with individuals who are and/or have worked as first responders/protective services workers. These professionals differ from veterans in that they spend their careers at home working in and around their communities to protect the safety and welfare of citizens. Some first responders/protective services workers have served in the military, but differ in many ways as they live in the communities they serve. These professionals experience daily personal and professional exposure to traumatic incidents.
There are many assessment tools available on the United States Department of Veterans' Affairs website at: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/pages/assessments/all_measures.asp It is important for therapists to assess for suicidal ideation, trauma exposure, and trauma symptoms.
- Artwohl, A. & Christensen, L.W. (1997). Deadly force encounters: What cops need to know to mentally and physically prepare for and survive a gun fight. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press.
- Brunet, A., Weiss, D.S., Metzler, T.J., et al. (2001). The Peritraumatic Distress Inventory: A proposed Measure of PTSD criterion A2. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1480-1485.
- Brymer, Jacobs, Layne, Pynoos, Ruzek, Steinberg, Vernberg, Watson, (2006). Psychological First Aid (PFA). National Child Traumatic Stress Network and National Center for PTSD).
- Early Mental Health Intervention for First Responders/Protective Service Workers Including Firefighters and Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Professionals, Robbie Adler-Tapia http://www.springerpub.com/content/downloads/Ch18+Summary-Sheet.pdf
- Gawrych, A. L. (2010). PTSD in firefighters and secondary trauma in their wives. Hofstra University.
- Guenthner, D.H. (2012 Spring). Emergency and crisis management: Critical incident stress management for first responders and business organizations. Journal of Business Continuing Emergency Plan, 5(4):298-315.
- International Association of Firefighters (2001). Guide to Developing Fire Service Labor/Employee Assistance & Critical Incident Stress Management Programs, http://www.iaff.org/hs/LODD_Manual/Resources/IAFF%20Developing%20Fire%20Service%20LaborEmployee%20Assistance%20and%20CISM%20Programs.pdf. (Downloaded 02/14/13).
- Jarero, I., Amaya, C., Givaudan, M., & Miranda, A. (2013). EMDR individual protocol for paraprofessional use: A randomized controlled trial with first responders. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 7(2), 55-64. doi: 10.1891/1933-322.214.171.124
- Kimbrel, Steffen, Meyer, Kruse, Knight, Zimering, & Gulliver, (2011). A revised measure of occupational stress for firefighters: Psychometric properties and relationship to posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and substance abuse. Psychological Services. American Psychological Association 8, (4), 294–306.
- Kurke, M.I. & Scrivner, E.M. (1995) Police psychology into the 21st century. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
- Lansing, K. (2012). The rite of return: Coming back from duty-induced PTSD. USA: High Ground Press.
- Marmar, C.R., Weiss, D.S., & Metzler, T.J. (1997). The Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire. In Wilson J.P., Marmar C.R., (Eds.). Assessing psychological trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (p. 412-428). New York : The Guilford Press.
- Meyer, E. C., Zimering, R., Daly, E., Knight, J., Kamholz, B. W., & Gulliver, S. (2012). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms in trauma-exposed firefighters. Psychological Services, 9(1), 1-15.
- Mitchell, J.T. (1983). When disaster strikes...The critical incident stress debriefing. Journal of Emergency Medical Service, 13 (11), 49-52.
- Mitchell, J.T. & Everly, 0.5. (1996 ). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: An Operations Manual. Ellicott City, MD : Chevron.
- Mitchell, J.T. and Everly, G.S. (2001). Critical Incident Stress Management and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing: Evolution, Effects and Outcomes. In B. Raphael and J. Wilson (Eds.) Psychological Debriefing: Theory, practice and evidence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
- Murphy, S. A., Bond, G.E., Beaton, R.D., Murphy, J., & Clark, L.C. (2002). Lifestyle Practices and Occupational Stressors as Predictors of Health Outcomes in Urban Firefighters. International Journal of Stress Management, 9, (4), 311-327.
- Neria, Y., DiGrande, L., & Adams, B. G. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: A review of the literature among highly exposed populations. American Psychologist, 66(6), 429-446.
- Shapiro, F.S. (1989). Efficacy of eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memory. Journal of traumatic stress, 2, (2), 199-223.