Guidelines for Virtual EMDR Therapy
A Report of the Virtual Training and Therapy Task Group. At this time, the body of published research literature that provides a foundation of knowledge regarding the delivery of online EMDR therapy is limited. This gap in knowledge underscores the need for research in this area. This report introduces relevant issues with regard to the virtual delivery of EMDR therapy and specifically addresses professional practice and guidelines, ethical considerations, and overarching issues for EMDR therapy delivered by virtual means.
Online EMDR Therapy Resources
We will continue to add resources as they become available.
Peer-Reviewed Articles About Online EMDR Therapy:
Bates, A., Rushbrook, S., Shapiro, E., Grocott, M., & Cusack, R. (2020). CovEMERALD: Assessing the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of remotely delivered eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing following Covid-19 related critical illness: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BioMedCentral, 21: 929. Open Access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04805-1
Bongaerts, H. Voorendonk, E. M., van Minnen, A., & de Jongh, A. (2021). Safety and effectiveness of intensive treatment for complex PTSD delivered via home-based telehealth. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 12(1), 1860346. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2020.1860346
Bursnall, M., Thomas, B. D., Berntsson, H., Strong, E., Brayne, M. & Hind, D. (2022). Clinician and patient experience of internet-mediated eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing therapy. Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation and Mental Health, 28. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40737-022-00260-0
Faretta, E., Garau, M. I., Gallina, E., Pagani, M., & Fernandez, I. (2022). Supporting healthcare workers in times of COVID-19 with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing online: A pilot study. Frontiers in Psychology. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.964407
Fisher, N. (2021). Using EMDR therapy to treat clients remotely. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(1), 73-84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00041
Kaptan, S. K., Varese, F., Yilmaz, B., Andriopoulou, P., & Husain, N. (2022). “Online delivery gave me privacy and distance from others”: Feasibility trial and qualitative evaluation of an online intervention for refugees and asylum seekers; LTP + EMDR G-TEP. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research. Open Access: https://doi.org/10.1002/capr.12580
Lazzaroni, E., Invenizzi, R., Fogliato, E., Pagani, M., & Maslovaric, G. (2021). Coronavirus disease 2019 emergency and remote eye movement desensitization and reprocessing group therapy with adolescents and young adults: Overcoming lockdown with the butterfly hug. Frontiers in Psychology, Psychology for Clinical Settings, 701381. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.701381
Lenferink, L. I. M., Meyerbroker, K., & Boelen, P. A. (2020). PTSD treatment in times of COVID-19: A systematic review of the effects of online EMDR. Psychiatry Research, 293:113438. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113438
Liou, H., Lane, C., Huang, C., Mookadam, M., Joseph, M., & Hecker DuVal, J. (2022). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing in a primary care setting: Assessing utility and comparing efficacy of virtual versus in-person methods. Telemedicine and e-Health, Ahead of Print. https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2021.0454
Marotta-Walters, S.A., Jain, K., DeNardo, J., Kaur, P., & Kaligounder, S. (2018). A review of mobile applications for facilitating EMDR treatment of complex trauma and its comordities. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 12(1), 2-15. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-322.214.171.124
Maxfield, L. (2021). Low-intensity interventions and EMDR therapy. Journal of EMDR Practice & Research, 15(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-21-00009
McGowan, I. W., Fisher, N., Havens, J., & Proudlock, S. (2021). An evaluation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy delivered remotely during the Covid-19 pandemic. BMC Psychiatry, 21, 560. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03571-x
Mischler, C., Hofmann, A., Behnke, A., Matits, L., Lehnung, M., Varadarajan, S., Rojas, R., Kolassa, I-T., & Tumani, V. (2021). Therapists’ experiences with the effectiveness and feasibility of videoconference-based eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. Frontiers in Psychology: Psychology for Clinical Settings, 748712. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.748712
Moench, J., & Billsten, O. (2021). Randomized controlled trial: Self-care traumatic episode protocol (STEP), computerized EMDR treatment of COVID-19 related stress. Journal of EMDR Practice & Research, 15(2), 99-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00047
Papanikolopoulos, P., Prattos, T., & Foundoulakis, E. (2022). Pandemic times and the experience of online EMDR practice in Greece: A qualitative study on obstacles and perspectives. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 16(3), 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2021-0033
Perri, R. L., Castelli, P., La Rosa, C., Zucchi, T., & Onofri, A. (2021). COVID-19, isolation, quarantine: on the efficacy of internet-based eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ongoing trauma. Brain Sciences, 11(5), 579. Open access: https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050579
Perez, M. C., Estevez, M. E., Becker, Y., Osorio, A., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2020). Multisite randomized controlled trial on the provision of the EMDR integrative group treatment protocol for ongoing traumatic stress remote to healthcare professionals working in hospitals during the Covid-19 pandemic. Psychology and Behavioral Science, 15(4), 555920. DOI: 10.19080/PBSIJ.2020.15.555920. Open access: https://juniperpublishers.com/pbsij/PBSIJ.MS.ID.555920.php
Sagaltici, E., Cetinkaya, M., Kocamer Sahin, S., Gulen, B., & Karaman, S. (2022). Recent traumatic episode protocol EMDR applied online for COVID-19 related symptoms of Turkish health care workers diagnosed with COVID-19 related PTSD: A pilot study. Alpha Psychiatry, 23(3), 121-127. Open access: https://doi.org/10.5152/alphapsychiatry.2022.21763
Spence, J., Titov, N., Johnson, L., Dear, B. F., Wootton, B., Terides, M., & Zou, J. (2013). Internet-delivered eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (iEMDR): An open trial [version 2; peer review: 2 approved]. F1000Research, 2:79. Open access: https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.2-79.v2
Tarquinio, C., Brennstuhl, M., Rydberg, J. A., Bassan, F., Peter, L., Tarquinio, C. L., & . . . Tarquinio, P. (2020). EMDR in telemental health counseling for healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients: A pilot study. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, published online. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2020.1818014
Todder, D., & Kaplan, Z. (2007). Rapid eye movements for acute stress disorder using video conference communication. Telemedicine and e-Health, (13)4, 461-464. http://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2006.0058
Winkler, O., Dhaliwal, R., Greenwhaw, A., O’Shea, K., Abba-Aji, A., Chima, C., Purdon, S. E., & Burback, L. (2021). Web-based eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for adults with suicidal ideation: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial. JMIR Research Protocols, 10(11): e30711. Open access: https://doi.org/10.2196/30711
Elledge, B. D., (2021). The efficacy of online eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)- informed therapy for clients with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (28961959). [Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing. https://www.proquest.com/openview/c858bb6307142f53e72a16f35ece6259/1?pq-origsite=gscholar&cbl=18750&diss=y
Feenstra, S. E. (2021). The effectiveness of an online-delivered intensive treatment programme for PTSD, combining PE, EMDR therapy, physical activity and psycho-education. [Master’s thesis, Utrecht University]. Utrecht University Repository. https://dspace.library.uu.nl/handle/1874/405559
Pohjanheimo, R. J. (2020). Mood effects of immersion, control, and interaction in virtual reality eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. [Master’s thesis, University of Twente]. University of Twente Student Theses Repository. http://essay.utwente.nl/83847/
Clinical Practice Resources on Using Online EMDR Therapy
Protocols, Presentations, and Web Resources:
Tips for Maintaining the Therapeutic Relationship in Online EMDR Therapy.
- EMDRIA. (2020).
- Infographic. Go With That Magazine, Summer 2020. https://www.emdria.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/02/Online-EMDR-Therapy-Alliance.3.pdf
Visionary & Virtual: Aligning Our Online Practices.
- Kaufman, S. (2020).
- Go With That Magazine, Summer 2020. https://www.emdria.org/publications-resources/go-with-that-magazine/
EMDR resources in the era of COVID-19.
- Luber, M. Editor. (2020).
- Click here to access with permission: EMDR Resources in the Era of COVID-19.
Self-Care procedure for coronavirus (SCP-C).
- Quinn, G. (2020, March 30).
- To access a PDF of this protocol (available with permission), click here
Treating PTSD during the COVID-19 virus outbreak.
- Veterans Health Administration. National Center for PTSD (2020, March).
- Presentation for providers who treat veterans.
- Retrieved May 27 from https://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/consult/2020lecture_archive/03182020_lecture_slides.pdf
EMDR internet therapy [Poster Presentation].
- Watson Wong, J. (2013). EMDRIA Annual Conference.
- Retrieved from: http://www.online-emdr.com/Poster.pdf
Internet presencing essentials V3.5: For eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) professionals.
- Watson Wong, J. (2020, March).
- Paper to inform the EMDRIA board virtual training and therapy task group.
- To access a PDF of this paper (available with permission), click here
Ethics of EMDR therapy and telehealth during COVID-19 [Video].
- Central Ohio EMDR Connection. (2020, March 25). YouTube.
EMDR telehealth video - H.264 for video podcasting [Video].
- Kiessling, R. (2020, March 25).
- Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/400735353
Comprehensive demo on offering BLS (eye movements and tactile) through HIPAA-compliant telehealth platforms [Video].
- Marchand, J. & Hogg, R. (2020, March 17).
- Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/398125255
- Trauma-Responsive Preparations for Online EMDR [PDF], Marchand & Hogg. Available with permission.
- Technological Preparation for Online EMDR [PDF]. Marchand & Hogg. Available with permission.
EMDR Therapy Telehealth [Videos].
- Marich, J.
- Calm Safe Place & Container: EMDR Therapy Preparation Telehealth Demo. (2020, May 25). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_XJEULdhOMw&feature=youtu.be
- EMDR Therapy and Telehealth: One Year Later. (2021, January 10). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ti2TKuVvdwU
- Mini EMDR Therapy Telehealth Demonstration. (2020, May 31). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=26&v=KpAPWsUlKtE&feature=emb_logo
- Remote EMDR Therapy Demonstration. (2020, April 4). YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yh37KvS9Pf8&t=496s
EMDR online: Basic tips to get started [Video].
- Schubert, S. (2020, March 25).
- You Tube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAah57BUwZs&feature=youtu.be
Virtual EMDR [Video].
- Telehealth Certification Institute, LLC (2019, April 18).
- YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=2230&v=8XsPBeUmjlw&feature=emb_title
Books or Chapters:
Digital eye movement desensitization and reprocessing.
- Farrell, D., & Clifford, C. (2022). In H. Wilson (Ed.), Digital delivery of mental health therapies: A guide to the benefits and challenges, and making it work. (pp. 213-225).London, UK: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Virtual EMDR and telemental health play therapy.
- Flynn, J. (2021). In J. Stone (Ed.), Play therapy and telemental health: Foundations, populations, and interventions. New York, NY: Routledge.
Reflections on providing virtual eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the wake of COVID-19: Survival through adaptation.
- O’Shea Brown, G. (2021). In C. Tosone (Ed.), Shared trauma, shared resilience during a pandemic (pp. 235-248). Essential Clinical Social Work Series. New York, NY: Springer Nature.
EMDR and telehealth (Episode 24) [Podcast].
- Savage, J., & Sundwall, M. (2020, April 8).
- Notice That Podcast. http://emdr-podcast.com/episode-24-emdr-and-telehealth/
The effectiveness of EMDR therapy delivered via an e-Health platform in the treatment of complex sexual abuse utilizing the ‘Abate Abuse’ protocol.
- Howard, K. (2018).
- Presentation at EMDR Europe Conference, Strasbourg, France. Retrieved March 23, 2020 from https://remdr.online/
Free Resources for EMDR Professionals
- Springer Publishing Company
Resources by Mental Health Profession
Be familiar with your legal responsibilities for the delivery of telehealth services by checking with your state licensing board. In addition, each profession may have its own guidelines and ethical codes for the provision of mental health services via telehealth. The Telemental Health Laws app is a helpful resource here.
- Counseling: American Counseling Association, http://www.counseling.org
- Marriage Family Therapy: American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, http://www.aamft.org
- Psychology: American Psychological Association, http://www.apa.org
- Psychiatry: American Psychiatric Association, http://www.psychiatry.org
- Social Work: National Association for Social Workers, http://www.socialworkers.org
State by State Guides:
Please note: Always contact both your state board and any potential client's state board before proceeding. Telehealth guidelines and regulations rapidly change.
- State by State Guide for Mental Health Professionals. The University of Texas at Austin. https://cmhc.utexas.edu/state_telehealth.html
- States' rules and regulations. Telehealth Certification Institute. https://telementalhealthtraining.com/states-rules-and-regulations
- Telehealth guidance by state during COVID-19. American Psychological Association. https://www.apaservices.org/practice/clinic/covid-19-telehealth-state-summary
For Information on Telehealth:
Center for Connected Health Policy: The National Telehealth Policy Resource Center. Telehealth coverage policies in the time of COVID-19. https://www.cchpca.org/resources/covid-19-telehealth-coverage-policies
National Consortium of Telehealth Resource Centers. https://telehealthresourcecenter.org/.
- We are a collaborative of 12 regional and 2 national Telehealth Resource Centers, committed to implementing telehealth programs for rural and underserved communities. Funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and Health Resources and Services Administration, we provide timely and accurate information on telehealth across the nation.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2021). Telehealth for the treatment of serious mental illness and substance use disorders. https://store.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/SAMHSA_Digital_Download/PEP21-06-02-001.pdf
Telebehavioral Health Institute. (2021, July 6). Basic HIPAA FAQs: Easy HIPAA facts that you need to know. https://telehealth.org/hipaa-faqs/?awt_a=7Wrn&awt_l=GLuDz&awt_m=3Z.qCu4GDf27Xrn
HIPAA compliant teletherapy platforms:
To learn more about HIPAA and HIPAA compliance, go to https://www.hhs.gov/hipaa/index.html. HIPAA compliant platforms include a BAA or Business Associate Agreement. A BAA is a contract between a HIPAA-covered entity (therapist) and a HIPAA business associate (affiliated party who handles PHI e.g. lawyer, accountant, or platform). BAAs satisfy HIPAA regulations and protect PHI or protected health information in accordance with HIPAA guidelines. A BAA creates legal recourse for each party. Note: EMDRIA does not endorse any of these companies.
- Nous Talk
- Simple Practice
- Zoom (HIPAA Compliant version)
Online EMDR Therapy Platforms
These are platforms or apps that provide EMDR specific bilateral stimulation (BLS)/dual attention stimulus (DAS) services. Android's Google Play Store and the iPhone App Store both have various options as well.
Note: This is a resource list only. EMDRIA does not endorse any of these companies.
- BSDR player
- Bilateral Base
- EMDR Helper
- EMDR Remote
Tips for Maintaining the Therapeutic Relationship in Online EMDR Therapy
COVID-19 Clinical Resources
We will continue to add resources as they become available.
EMDR Therapy During the Time of COVID-19
EMDR in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic in India: A short report.
- Adithy, A., de Wit, E. E., Bunders-Aelen, J. G. F. (2022). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 16(2), 68-75.
How EMDR helped me find healing in a most daunting year.
- Auble, K. (2021, April 2). Vogue.
CovEMERALD: Assessing the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of remotely delivered Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing following COVID-19 related critical illness: A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
- Bates, A., Rushbrook, S., Shapiro, E., Grocott, M., & Cusack, R. (2020). BioMedCentral, 21: 929
As COVID winds down, concerns about mental health grow.
- Berard, Y. (2021, April 26). EMS World.
Treating COVID-19 patients with EMDR: A pilot study.
- Brennstuhl, M., Tarquinio, P., Rydberg, J. A., Tarquinio, C. L., Peter, L., Rotonda, C., & Tarquinio, C. (2022). European Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 100276.
Some Covid-19 hospital patients 'suffer PTSD' - what are the key signs?
- Bromsgrove Editorial. (2021). Bromsgrove Standard.
NAMI working to help frontline workers with new grant.
- Carson, D. (2020, Nov 19). Fremont News-Messenger.
What a trauma therapist wants everyone to know during the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Contreras, A. Yahoo News (2020, May 13).
Turkey sets global example with online therapy sessions to combat COVID-19 woes.
- Daily Sabah (2020, Sep 21).
Psychological treatment of traumatic memories in COVID-19 survivors.
- Dinapoli, L., Ferrarese, D., Belella, D., Carnevale, S., Camardese, G., Sani, G., & Chieffo, D. P. R. (2022). Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy.
The effectiveness of psychological support interventions for those exposed to mass infectious disease outbreaks: A systematic review.
- Doherty, A., Benedetto, V., Harris, C., Boland, P., Christian, D. L., Hill, J., Bhutani, G., & Clegg, A. J. (2021). BMC Psychiatry, 21, 592.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03602-7
The effect of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing technique on COVID-19 induced anxiety, depression, sleep quality among emergency nurses.
- El-Abbassy, A. A., EL Berry, K. I., El Mageed, H. H. A., & Amer, H. M. (2021). Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(5), 3185-3205.
- Open access retrieval from: http://annalsofrscb.ro/index.php/journal/article/view/4931
How therapists are adapting EMDR trauma therapy during COVID-19.
- Fabian, R. Yahoo News (2020, April 29).
Supporting healthcare workers in times of COVID-19 with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing online: A pilot study.
- Faretta, E., Garau, M. I., Gallina, E., Pagani, M., & Fernandez, I. (2022). Frontiers in Psychology.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.964407
Promoting mental health in healthcare workers in hospitals through psychological group support with EMDR during COVID-19: An observational study.
- Fogliato, E., Invernizzi, R., Maslovaric, G., Fernandez, I., Rigamonti, V., Lora, A., Frisone, E., & Pagani, M. (2022). Frontiers in Psychology: Psychology for Clinical Settings, 794178.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.794178
A FLASH OF HOPE: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy.
- Gainer, D., Alam, S., Alam, H., & Redding, H. (2020). Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience, 17(7-9), 12-20.
- Open access: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc7839656/
'I can't turn my brain off': PTSD and burnout threaten medical workers.
- Hoffman, J. The New York Times (2020, May 16).
In a crisis, we can learn from trauma therapy.
- Holland, E. The New York Times (2020, June 15).
The effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing anxiety in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU.
- Jelveh, M. (2021). Journal of Assessment and Research in Counseling and Psychology, 3(2), 27-37.
- http://jarcp.ir/article-1-67-en.html [Persian]
Use of EMDR-derived self-help intervention in children in the period of COVID-19: A randomized-controlled study.
- Karadag, M., Topal, Z., Ezer, R. N., & Gokcen, C. (2021). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2).
- Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00054
Letting steam out of the pressure cooker: The EMDR life stress protocol.
- Laliotis, D. (2021). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(3).
Coronavirus disease 2019 emergency and remote eye movement desensitization and reprocessing group therapy with adolescents and young adults: Overcoming lockdown with the butterfly hug.
- Lazzaroni, E., Invenizzi, R., Fogliato, E., Pagani, M., & Maslovaric, G. (2021). Frontiers in Psychology, Psychology for Clinical Settings, 701381.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.701381
PTSD treatment in times of COVID-19: A systematic review of the effects of online EMDR.
- Lenferink, L. I. M., Meyerbroker, K., & Boelen, P. A. Psychiatry Research, 293:113438. (2020).
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113438
The Flash technique in a low-intensity group trauma intervention for healthcare providers impacted by COVID-19 patients.
- Manfield, P. E., Engel, L., Greenwald, R., & Bullard, D. G. (2021). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2).
- Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00053
An evaluation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy delivered remotely during the Covid-19 pandemic.
- McGowan, I. W., Fisher, N., Havens, J., & Proudlock, S. (2021). BMC Psychiatry, 21, 560.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-021-03571-x
Randomized controlled trial: Self-care traumatic episode protocol (STEP), computerized EMDR treatment of COVID-19 related stress.
- Moench, J., & Billsten, O. (2021). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 15(2).
- Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-D-20-00047
COVID-19's crushing mental health toll on health care workers.
- Nelson, B., & Kaminsky, D. B. (2020, Sept 4). Cancer Cytopathology, 128(9), 597-598.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.1002/cncy.22347
Reflections on providing virtual eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in the wake of COVID-19: Survival through adaptation.
- O’Shea Brown, G. (2021). In Tosone, C. (Eds.), Shared trauma, shared resilience during a pandemic (pp. 235-248). Essential Clinical Social Work Series. New York, NY: Springer Nature.
Coronavirus pandemic brings unprecedented trauma to NYC's EMS.
- Quinn, A. MSN News (2020, Aug 29).
COVID-19, isolation, quarantine: On the efficacy of internet-based eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for ongoing trauma.
- Perri, R. L., Castelli, P., La Rosa, C., Zucchi, T., & Onofri, A. (2021). Brain Sciences, 11(5), 579.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050579
Multisite randomized controlled trial on the provision of the EMDR integrative group treatment protocol for ongoing traumatic stress remote to healthcare professionals working in hospitals during the Covid-19 pandemic.
- Perez, M. C., Estevez, M. E., Becker, Y., Osorio, A., Jarero, I., & Givaudan, M. (2020).
- Psychology and Behavioral Science, 15(4), 555920. DOI: 10.19080/PBSIJ.2020.15.555920.
- Retrieved 10/30/2020 from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344932427_Multisite_Randomized_Controlled_Trial_on_the_Provision_of_the_EMDR_Integrative_Group_Treatment_Protocol_for_Ongoing_Traumatic_Stress_Remote_to_Healthcare_Professionals_Working_in_Hospitals_During_the_
The role of OH in reducing the mental trauma of Covid-19.
- Pinchen, D. Occupational Health & Wellbeing: Workplace Wellbeing News and Guidance from Personnel Today. (2021, February 5).
Hospitals offer therapy to frontline employees at risk for 'PTSD-type scenario.'
- Prohaska, T. J. The Buffalo News (2020, May 23).
Burnout and posttraumatic stress disorder in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic: Intersection, impact, and interventions.
- Restauri, N., & Sheridan, A. D. Journal of the American College of Radiology, 17(7), 921-926. (2020)
Recent traumatic episode protocol EMDR applied online for COVID-19 related symptoms of Turkish health care workers diagnosed with COVID-19 related PTSD: A pilot study.
- Sagaltici, E., Cetinkaya, M., Kocamer Sahin, S., Gulen, B., & Karaman, S. (2022). Alpha Psychiatry, 23(3), 121-127.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.5152/alphapsychiatry.2022.21763
Hunkering down: 4 brain-wise ways to cope during COVID-19.
- Schneider, A. PsychCentral (2020, Mar 25).
Caring for the carers: EMDR in the context of a pandemic.
- Smith, A. EMDR UK EMDR Therapy Quarterly. (2021).
EMDR therapy treatment of grief and mourning in times of COVID-19 (Coronavirus)
- Solomon, R. M. & Hensley, B. J. (2020). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 14(3)
EMDR in telemental health counseling for healthcare workers caring for COVID-19 patients: A pilot study.
- Tarquinio, C., Brennstuhl, M., Rydberg, J. A., Bassan, F., Peter, L., Tarquinio, C. L., & . . . Tarquinio, P. (2020). Issues in Mental Health Nursing.
Managing COVID-19 related psychological distress in health workers: Field experience in northern Italy.
- Torricelli, L., Poletti, M., & Raballo, A. (2020). Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, online.
- Open access: https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.13165
COVID-19 and healthcare professionals : The psychological impact of the pandemic on healthcare professionals and the use of EMDR early interventions.
- Tortes Saint-Jammes, J., Sorel, O., Zara-Jouillat, E., Martin, C-H., Gil-Jardine, C., & Lavandier, A. (2022). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 16(3), 156-168
Can at-home EMDR therapy help reduce trauma?
- Vinopal, L. MEL. (2020, June).
SAMHSA Tip Sheet for Clients
For Ongoing Updates on the Coronavirus
Keep current regarding recommendations for risk mitigation from:
- Centers for Disease Control: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html
- World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
Returning to work
Many therapists are struggling with how best to help their clients and themselves stay safe during the fluctuating levels of coronavirus risk and increasing numbers of people receiving the vaccine. The decision to resume in-person work, return to the workplace, or provide services via telehealth is a difficult one. There are many aspects to consider and an array of guidelines to choose from. Stay informed by checking in with your local or regional regulatory bodies. Consult with colleagues. EMDRIA members can post questions and share information in the COVID-19 Resource Community.
Resources from government organizations:
- CDC. Toolkit for Businesses & Workplaces. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/communication/toolkits/business-workplaces.html
- Interim CDC guidance on handling non-COVID-19 public health activities that required face-to-face interaction with clients in the clinic and field in the current COVID-19 pandemic. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/non-covid-19-client-interaction.html
- OSHA. Guidance on preparing workplaces for COVID-19. https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA3990.pdf
- The White House. COVID-19. https://www.whitehouse.gov/priorities/covid-19/
- WHO. Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/getting-workplace-ready-for-covid-19.pdf
Sample Informed Consents for Returning to In-Person Services:
- APA. Sample informed consent form for resuming in-person services. (2020). https://www.apaservices.org/practice/clinic/covid-19-informed-consent
- Caldwell, B. (2021, July 13). What to consider before you return to in-person sessions. Pollen. https://www.simplepractice.com/blog/how-to-return-to-in-person-sessions/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=sp-pollen&utm_campaign=20210715-paid-trial-pollen-weekly-return-in-person-sessions
- CAMFT. Helpful resources during COVID-19. Building your Back To Business plan. https://www.camft.org/covid19#7
- American's Health Insurance Plans. Health insurance providers respond to Coronavirus (COVID-19). (2021). https://www.ahip.org/health-insurance-providers-respond-to-coronavirus-covid-19/
- AAMFT. COVID-19: Reopening practices and resuming in-person sessions. https://www.aamft.org/Events/Coronavirus-Reopening-Guidelines.aspx
- APA. COVID-19: When is it OK to resume in-person services? (2020). https://www.apaservices.org/practice/news/in-person-services-covid-19
- Boring-Bray, W. (2020). Counseling after COVID-19: What should providers do? Psychology Today. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/new-beginning/202005/counseling-after-covid-19-what-should-providers-do
- Camper, A. B., & Felton, E. M. (2020). Social worker's disclosure responsibilities during the pandemic. NASW Office of General Counsel. https://www.emdria.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/Social-Workers-Disclosure-Responsibility-During-COVID-19-1.pdf.
- Article addresses situations in which social workers have been asked to disclose client names in order to assist in tracing exposure to the coronavirus. Retrieved from NASW Legal Resources webpage: https://www.socialworkers.org/About/Legal/COVID-19-Legal-Resources
- Higdon, K. (2020). Checklist: Returning to the therapy office after COVID-19. https://www.zynnyme.com/blog/returning-to-the-counseling-therapy-office-after-covid-19
- NASW. Social work safety. COVID-19: Practice guidelines for reopening social work practices. https://www.socialworkers.org/Practice/Infectious-Diseases/Coronavirus/Social-Work-Safety
- Sheperis, D. S., Ordway, A., Kocet, M., & Hermann, M. (2020). Ethics in the time of COVID: Contact tracing. Counseling Today. https://ct.counseling.org/2020/09/ethics-in-the-time-of-covid-contact-tracing/?MvBriefArticleId=46805
Stimulus Relief Information
Many EMDR therapists are sole proprietors/self-employed or run a small business. The stimulus package passed by Congress provides various supports to small businesses and sole proprietors. The following resources could provide information on help for which you might qualify.
- National Board for Certified Counselors. Stimulus package benefits available to counselors. https://www.nbcc.org/resources/nccs/newsletter/stimulus-package-benefits-available-to-counselors
- U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Guide to small business COVID-19 emergency loans. https://www.uschamber.com/report/covid-19-emergency-loans-small-business-guide
- U.S. Department of the Treasury. The CARES Act provides assistance to small businesses. https://home.treasury.gov/policy-issues/cares/assistance-for-small-businesses
- U.S. Small Business Administration. Coronavirus (COVID-19): Small business guidance & loan resources. https://www.sba.gov/page/coronavirus-covid-19-small-business-guidance-loan-resources
Perspectives on the Changing Mental Health Landscape After COVID-19
Stress in America 2020 survey
- American Psychological Association (2020).
- A National Mental Health Crisis: https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress/2020/report-october
- Stress in the time of COVID-19: https://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress
The color of coronavirus: COVID-19 deaths by race and ethnicity in the U.S.
- APM Research Lab (2020, July 22).
Yale researchers size up the mental health toll of the pandemic
- Belli, B. (2021, April 12). YaleNews.
Managing traumatic grief and coping after national crises
- Bradley University. Counseling Resources.
Counseling's evolution under COVID-19
- Bray, B. (2020, May 20). Counseling Today.
Americans' mental health ratings sink to new low
- Brenan, M. (2020, December 7). Gallup.
CDC unveils mental health protection plan for healthcare workers
- Brooks, M. (2021, Nov 19). Medscape.
After trying remote therapy, some may never go back to in-person sessions
- Brown, H. (2020, July 7). VICE.
COVID-19 questions and answers: For people who use drugs or have substance use disorder
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, October).
Mental Health: Household Pulse Survey
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, April). National Center for Health Statistics and Census Bureau Survey.
Mental health, substance abuse, and suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic - United States, June 24-30, 2020
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2020, August). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR 69:32).
Pandemic's emotional hammer hits hard
- Chatterjee, R. (2020, September 2). NPR All Things Considered.
Many Americans are reaching out for mental health support - but can't get it
- Chatterjee, R. (2021, August 24). NPR All Things Considered.
Why people with mental illness are at higher risk of COVID
- Chatterjee, R. (2021, November 22). NPR Public Health
The self-help that no one needs right now
- Cummins, E. (2021). The Atlantic.
Prevalence of depression symptoms in US adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic
- Ettman, C. K., Abdalla, S. M., Cohen, G. H., Sampson, L., Vivier, P. M., & Galea, S. (2020). JAMA Network Open, 3(9), e2019686
A third of Americans now show signs of clinical anxiety or depression, Census Bureau finds amid coronavirus pandemic
- Fowers, A., & Wan, W. (2020, May 26). The Washington Post.
The novel coronavirus (COVID-2019) outbreak: Amplification of public health consequences by media exposure
- Garfin, D. R., Silver, R. C., & Holman, E. A. (2020). Health Psychology, 39(5), 355-357.
Reformulating client well-being during an economic crisis.
- Gleeson, S. (2020). Counseling Today.
In psychotherapy, the toilet has become the new couch
- Gottlieb, L. (2020, April 30). The New York Times.
Drastic changes in social lives raise future mental health concerns
- Griess, R. (2020, May 27). UT News.
Study suggests 'brain fog' after COVID-19 recovery may be due to PTSD
- Healthworld. (2020, Oct 11).
Pandemic hits mental health of women and young people hardest, survey finds.
- Henley, J. (2021, November 23). The Guardian.
Disparities in SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates: Associations with race and ethnicity.
- Kaufman, H. W., Niles, J. K., & Nash, D. B. (2020). Population Health Management.
Many Americans continue to experience mental health difficulties as pandemic enters second year.
- Keeter, S. (2021, March 16). Pew Research Center.
KFF health tracking poll - late April 2020: Coronavirus, social distancing, and contact tracing
- Kirzinger, A., Hamel, L., Munana, C., Kearney, A., & Brodie, M. (2020, April 24). Kaiser Family Foundation.
The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID-19
- Luchetti, M., Lee, J. H., Aschwanden, D., Sesker, A., Strickhouser, J. E., Terracciano, A., & Sutin, A. R. (2020). American Psychologist.
How grief is different during COVID-19
- Metraux, J. (2021, March 9). VeryWell Health.
The mental health of healthcare workers in COVID-19
- Mental Health America. Survey Results June-September 2020.
Feeling the strain: The effects of COVID-19 on children and adolescents
- Meyers, L. (2021, April 23). Counseling Today.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse
The opioid epidemic within the COVID-19 pandemic: Drug testing in 2020
- Niles, J. K., Gudin, J., Radcliff, J., & Kaufman, H. W. (2020). Population Health Management.
The implications of COVID-19 for mental health and substance use
- Panchal, N., Kamal, R., Orgera, K., Cox, C., Garfield, R., Hamel, L., & . . . Chidambaram, P. (2020, April 21). Kaiser Family Foundation.
How COVID-19 is affecting our fears, phobias and anxieties
- Phillips, L. (2021, March 2). Counseling Today.
Media & mental health: The need for more credible information.
- Prabhu, S. (2021, August 31). Psychiatric Times.
Global prevalence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents during COVID-19
- Racine, N., Mcarthur, B. A., Cooke, J., Eirich, R., Zhu, J., & Madigan, S. (2021, August 9). JAMA Pediatrics.
Suicide mortality and coronavirus disease 2019 - A perfect storm?
- Reger, M A., Stanley, I. H., & Joiner, T. E. (2020, April 10). JAMA Psychiatry.
The fall surge is here setting off wave of workplace mental health problems
- Robinson, B. (2020, October 29). Forbes.
Mental health is one of the biggest pandemic issues we'll face in 2021
- Rogers, K. (2021, January 4). CNN Health.
Measuring the economic impact of COVID-19 on survivors of color
- Ruiz, E., Ruvalcaba, Y., Berenstain, N., & Fluegeman, S. (2020). Me Too Movement.
- Covid Impact Report 2020
Depression, anxiety and insomnia during pandemics: Prevalence and risk factors.
- Saloman, L. (2022, June 21). Contagion Live: Infections Diseases Today.
COVID-19 pandemic linked to an increase in intimate partner aggression, study shows.
- Science Daily. (2021, August 17).
COVID-19 has likely tripled depression rate, study finds
- Science Daily. (2020, September 2).
Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations.
- Shigemura, J., Ursano, R., J., MOrganstein, J. C., Kurosawan, M., & Benedek, D. M. (2020).
Children's mental health emergencies skyrocketed after COVID-19 hit. What schools can do.
- Sparks, S. D. (2020, November 12). Education Week.
Virtual reality and the COVID mental health crisis.
- Spiegel, B. (2020, November 15). Scientific American.
Pandemic increasing suicidal ideation
- St. Amour, M. (2020, August 17). Inside Higher Education.
Is returning to work during the COVID-19 pandemic stressful? A study on immediate mental health status and psychoneuroimmunity prevention measures of Chinese workforce
- Tan, W., Hao, F., McIntyre, R. S., Jiang, L., Jiang, X., Zhang, O., & . . . Tam, W. (2020, April 23). Brain, Behavior, and Immunity.
Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: Retrospective cohort studies of 62 354 COVID-19 cases in the USA
- Taquet, M., Luciano, S., Geddes, J. R., & Harrison, P. J. (2020). The Lancet Psychiatry.
The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health
- Torales, J., O'Higgins, M., Castaldelli Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020, March 31). International Journal of Social Psychiatry.
How to make telehealth more permanent after COVID-19
- Turner Lee, N., & Yaraghi, N. (2020, Sep 4). Brookings Techtank.
The Impact of COVID-19 on global mental health: A brief
- United for Global Mental Health. (2020).
Socioeconomic status and well-being during COVID-19: A resource-based examination
- Wanberg, C. R., Csillag, B., Douglass, R. P., Zhou, L., & Pollard, M. S. (2020). Journal of Applied Psychology.
Too big to ignore: 7 recommendations to address our growing mental health crisis.
- Wennberg, D. E., & Kennedy, P. J. (2020, December 14). Health Affairs.
We may not have been as anxious, depressed in pandemic's first year as once thought.
- Williamson, E. (2022, June 22). UVA Today.
Job insecurity and financial concern during the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with worse mental health.
- Wilson, J. M., Lee, J., Fitzgerald, H. N., Oosterhoff, B., Sevi, B., & Shook, N. (2020). Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
Signs of depression and anxiety soar among US graduate students during pandemic
- Woolston, C. (2020, August 18). Nature.
Assessment of mental health of Chinese primary school students before and after school closing and opening during the COVID-19 pandemic
- Zhang, L., Zhang, D., Fang, J., Wan, Y., Tao, F., & Sun, Y. (2020, September 11). JAMA Research Letter, Public Health.
Mental Health and Substance Use Assistance
For patients and family members in need of immediate assistance:
- Call 911
- Disaster Distress Helpline: Call 1-800-985-5990. Text TalkWithUs to 66746
- Drug and Alcohol Abuse Hotlines. 1-844-616-3400.
- National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: Call 1-800-273-8255. Chat with Lifeline
- Crisis Help Line: Call 1-800-233-4357
- Crisis Text Line: Text CONNECT to 741741
- How COVID-19 has affected Substance Abuse
- Mental Health Information for Disease Outbreaks via Mental Health America
- Resources for mental health care providers and frontline workers assisting with the global COVID-19 crisis