The dawn of a new year has us appreciating new beginnings. New projects and fresh starts often need persistence and courage to get them off the ground. The beginning of EMDR therapy was no exception as Francine Shapiro, Ph.D., laid the foundation for this therapy even in the midst of doubts and questions. In 1987, she made Dr. Shapiro made the observation that eye movements can reduce the intensity of disturbing thoughts in certain condition. In the beginning stages of projects or endeavors, it is important to be curious, open-minded, and hopeful for future change. We believe Francine followed her curiosity in this way and after studying this effect further, published her success in using EMDR as a treatment in 1989 in the “Journal of Traumatic Stress.” Dr. Shapiro and early EMDR clinicians demonstrated these qualities by researching and pursuing client success while developing the principles of EMDR therapy. We want to honor Dr. Shapiro’s courage, persistence, and curiosity by sharing a collection of resources below. Included are valuable academic and popular writings, videos, podcasts, and book contributions.
Peer-Reviewed Research Articles, Sole Author:
Please note that due to publication and copyright protection, some articles may not be available in an open-access form, however, we have indicated those that are with ‘Open access‘ in front of the doi link. In addition, as Dr. Shapiro was a prolific writer, it is very possible we have some missing articles. We would be happy to add them in if brought to our attention at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shapiro, F. (1989a). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2(2), 199-223. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490020207
Shapiro, F. (1989b). Eye movement desensitization: A new treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20(3), 211-217. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(89)90025-6
Shapiro, F. (1991). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: From EMD to EMDR/R – a new treatment model for anxiety and related traumata. The Behavior Therapist, 14(5), 133-135.
Shapiro, F. (1993). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) in 1992. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6(3), 417-421. https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490060312
Shapiro, F. (1994a). Alternative stimuli in the use of EMD(R). Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25(1), 89. https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7916(94)90071-X
Shapiro, F. (1994b). EMDR: In the eye of a paradigm shift. The Behavior Therapist, 17, 153-157.
Shapiro, F. (1996a). Errors of context and review of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing research. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 27(3), 313-317. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7916(96)00035-3
Shapiro, F. (1996b). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Evaluation of controlled PTSD research. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 27(3), 209-218. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7916(96)00029-8
Shapiro, F. (1999). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and the anxiety disorders: Clinical and research implications of an integrated psychotherapy treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13(1-2), 35-67. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6185(98)00038-3
Shapiro, F. (2001). The challenges of treatment evolution and integration. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 43(3-4), 183-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/00029157.2001.10404275
Shapiro, F. (2002a). EMDR 12 years after its introduction: Past and future research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(1), 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.1126
Shapiro, F. (2002b). EMDR and the role of the clinician in psychotherapy evaluation: Towards a more comprehensive integration of science and practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(12), 1453-1463. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10104
Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR, adaptive information processing, and case conceptualization. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(2), 68-87. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3188.8.131.52
Shapiro, F. (2012). EMDR therapy: An overview of current and future research. Revue Europeenne de Psychologie Appliquee/European Review of Applied Psychology 62(4), 193-195. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erap.2012.09.005
Shapiro, F. (2013). The case: Treating Jared through eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(5), 494-496. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.21986
Shapiro, F. (2014a). The role of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy in medicine: Addressing the psychological and physical symptoms stemming from adverse life experiences. The Permanente Journal, 18(1), 71-77. Open access: https://doi.org/10.7812/TPP/13-098
Shapiro, F. (2014b). EMDR therapy humanitarian assistance programs: Treating the psychological, physical, and societal effects of adverse experiences worldwide. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 8(4), 181-186. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3184.108.40.206
Peer-Reviewed Research Articles, Co-Author:
Brown, S., & Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR in the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Clinical Case Studies 5(5), 403-420. Open access: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534650104271773
Landin-Romero, R., Novo, P., Vicens, V., McKenna, P. J., Santed, A., Pomarol-Clotet, E., Salgado-Pineda, P., Shapiro, F., & Amann, B. L. (2013). EMDR therapy modulates the default mode network in a subsyndromal, traumatized bipolar patient. Neuropsychobiology, 67(3), 181-184. https://doi.org/10.1159/000346654
Luber, M., & Shapiro, F. (2009). Interview with Francine Shapiro: Historical overview, present issues, and future directions of EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3(4), 217-231. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-3220.127.116.11
Madrid, A., Skolek, S., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Repairing failures in bonding through EMDR. Clinical Case Studies, 5(4), 271-286. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1177/1534650104267403
Novo, P., Landin-Romero, R., Radua, J., Vicens, V., Fernandez, I., Garcia, F., Pomarol-Clotet, E., McKenna, P. J., Shapiro, F., & Amann, B. L. (2014). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, 219(1), 122-128. Open access: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0165178114003837?via%3Dihub
Ricci, R. J., Clayton, C. A., & Shapiro, F. (2006). Some effects of EMDR treatment with previously abused child molesters: Theoretical reviews and preliminary findings. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 17(4), 538-562. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789940601070431
Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2007). EMDR and phantom limb pain: Theoretical implications, case study, and treatment guidelines. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1(1), 31-45. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-318.104.22.168
Schneider, J., Hofmann, A., Rost, C., & Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR in the treatment of chronic phantom limb pain. Pain Medicine, 9(1), 76-82. Open access: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2007.00299.x
Shapiro, F., & Laliotis, D. (2011). EMDR and the adaptive information processing model: Integrative treatment and case conceptualization. Clinical Social Work Journal, 39(1), 191-200. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10615-010-0300-7
Shapiro, F., Vogelmann-Sine, S., & Sine, L. F. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Treating trauma and substance abuse. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 26(4), 379-391. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1994.10472458
Solomon, R. M., & Shapiro, F. (2008). EMDR and the Adaptive Information Processing model: Potential mechanisms of change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2(4). Open access: https://doi.org/10.1891/1933-322.214.171.1245
Zabukovec, J., Lazrove, S., & Shapiro, F. (2000). Self-healing aspects of EMDR: The therapeutic change process and perspectives of integrated psychotherapies. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 10(2), 189-206. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009400317083
National Institute for the Clinical Application of Behavioral Medicine. (2013, April 12). Treating trauma with EMDR: Healing from our nightmares. [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S2BhZwHXFro (4 min)
The Psychology Webinar Group. (2014, February 6). Francine Shapiro Ph.D. EMDR Webinar “The Past is Present” [Video PPT presentation]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lsQbzfW9txc&feature=youtu.be (58 min)
VEN EMDR. (2014, July 25). EMDR interview Francine Shapiro [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8GUd5hhnkVE (44 min)
Brit, M. (Host). (2011, March 19). Episode 143: EMDR – An Interview with Founder Francine Shapiro [Audio podcast episode]. In The Psych Files. Audioboom. https://audioboom.com/posts/5153445-episode-143-emdr-an-interview-with-founder-francine-shapiro (22 min)
Robinson, J. (Host). (2014, July 18). Get past your past with EMDR eye movement desensitization and reprocessing & Francine Shapiro, Ph.D. In Get Real Radio: Empowering Lasting Transformation. Voice America [Audio podcast episode]. https://www.voiceamerica.com/episode/79155/get-past-your-past-with-emdr-eye-movement-desensitization-and-reprocessing-and-francine-shapiro-phd (56 min)
Take Care staff. (2015, February 1). Don’t overthink it: letting your brain work through trauma with EMDR. Take Care on WRVO Public Media [Audio interview with Francine Shapiro]. https://www.wrvo.org/post/dont-overthink-it-letting-your-brain-work-through-trauma-emdr (13 min)
Carey, B. (2019, July 11). Francine Shapiro, developer of eye-movement therapy, dies at 71. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/11/science/francine-shapiro-dead.html
EMDR International Association. (2019, September). In memory of Francine Shapiro. Go With That, 24(3), 5-11. https://www.emdria.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/01/GWT.2019.24.3.In_.Memory.of_.Francine.Shapiro..pdf
Savage, J., & Sundwall, M. (Hosts). (2019, July 30). Episode 9: Remembering Francine Shapiro [Audio podcast episode]. In Notice That. http://emdr-podcast.com/episode-9-remembering-francine-shapiro/
Solomon, R., & Maxfield, L. (2019). Obituary: Francine Shapiro. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research 13(3), 158-162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1933-3126.96.36.199
Warren, P. (2019, June 15). Francine Shapiro obituary. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/jul/15/francine-shapiro-obituary
Bilanow, T. (2012, February 27). Ask an expert about E.M.D.R. The New York Times. https://consults.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/02/27/ask-an-expert-about-e-m-d-r/
Careers in Psychology. (2012). Dr. Francine Shapiro: EMDR Psychologist [interview transcript]. https://careersinpsychology.org/interview/dr-francine-shapiro/
Shapiro, F. (n.d.). Clinician’s corner: EMDR therapy. International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies Stress Points. http://sherwood-istss.informz.net/admin31/content/template.asp?sid=48003&brandid=4463&uid=1019027291&mi=5471628&mfqid=26491997&ptid=0&ps=48003
Shapiro, F. (2012, January 27). Baby boomers and distant dads. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/ptsd-veterans_b_1228542
Shapiro, F. (2012, February 5). How memories keep us apart: The past is present. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/ptsd-military_b_1250202
Shapiro, F. (2012, February 19). Why our unconscious rules us and what to do about it. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/ptsd-veterans_b_1284642?ref=healthy-living
Shapiro, F. (2012, February 27). EMDR therapy and getting past your past. Good Therapy. https://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/emdr-therapy-your-past-0227126/
Shapiro, F. (2012, February 28). The many faces of fear and how to deal with them. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/ptsd-fear_b_1299786
Shapiro, F. (2012, March 2). The evidence on E.M.D.R. The New York Times: Consults. https://consults.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/02/the-evidence-on-e-m-d-r/
Shapiro, F. (2012, March 16). Expert answers on E.M.D.R. The New York Times: Consults. https://consults.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/expert-answers-on-e-m-d-r/
Shapiro, F. (2012, June 13). How to take back your power after a divorce. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/how-to-take-back-your-pow_b_1582534?guccounter=1
Shapiro, F. (2012, August 29). Helping you and your children make it through divorce. Huffington Post. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/helping-you-and-your-chil_b_1837948?utm_hp_ref=divorce-advice
Shapiro, F. (2012, Spring). How EMDR therapy opens a window to the brain. BrainWorld. https://brainworldmagazine.com/how-emdr-therapy-opens-a-window-to-the-brain/
Soderlund, J. (2000, Sep/Oct). Integral EMDR: An interview with Francine Shapiro. New Therapist Magazine, 9, 18-22. http://www.newtherapist.com/shapiro9.html
Tartakovsky, M. (2016, May 17). Using EMDR therapy to heal your past: Interview with creator Francine Shapiro. PsychCentral. https://psychcentral.com/lib/using-emdr-therapy-to-heal-your-past-interview-with-creator-francine-shapiro#1
Wetherford, R. (2014). Francine Shapiro on the evolution of EMDR therapy. Psychotherapy.net. https://www.psychotherapy.net/interview/francine-shapiro-emdr
Adler-Tapia, R., Settle, C., & Shapiro, F. (2011). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) psychotherapy with children who have experienced sexual abuse and trauma. In P. Goodyear-Brown (Ed.), Handbook of child sexual abuse: Identification, assessment, and treatment. New York, NY: Wiley Publishing.
Lake, K., & Shapiro, F. (2005). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. In M. Hersen (Ed.), Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy, Vol. 1: Adult clinical application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Laliotis, D., & Shapiro, F. (2022). EMDR therapy for trauma-related disorders. In U. Schnyder & M. Cloitre (Eds.), Evidence based treatments for trauma-related psychological disorders: A practical guide for clinicians, second edition. Cham, Switzerland, Springer Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-97802-0_11
Rosenthal, H. (2006). An encounter with EMDR pioneer Francine Shapiro: The eyes have it. In (Author) Therapy’s best: Practical advice and gems of wisdom from twenty accomplished counselors and therapists. New York, NY: Routledge
Shapiro, F. (1994). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A new treatment for anxiety and related trauma. In L. Hyer (Ed.), Trauma victim: Theoretical and practical suggestions (pp. 501-523). Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development.
Shapiro, F. (1997). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Research and clinical significance. In W. J. Matthews & Edgette, J. H. (Eds.), Current thinking and research in brief therapy: Solutions, strategies, narratives (Vol 1, pp .239-260). New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel, Inc.
Shapiro, F. (1998). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Historical context, recent research, and future directions. In L. VandeCreek & S. Knapp (Eds.), Innovations in clinical practice: A source book (Vol 16, pp. 143-162). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press Inc.
Shapiro, F. (2001). Trauma and adaptive information processing: EMDR’s dynamic and behavioral interface. In M. F. Solomon, R. J. Neborsky, L., McCullough, M. Alpert, F. Shapiro, and D. M. David (Eds.), Short-term therapy for long-term change. (pp.112-129). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co
Shapiro, F. (Ed.). (2002). EMDR as an integrative psychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Shapiro, F. (2012). Getting past your past: Take control of your life with self-help techniques from EMDR therapy. New York: NY, Rodale.
Shapiro, F. (2013). Redefining trauma and its hidden connections: Identifying and reprocessing the experiential contributors to a wide variety of disorders. In D. J. Siegel and M. Solomon (Eds.), Healing moments in psychotherapy (pp. 89-114). New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Co.
Shapiro, F. (2018, 2001, 1995). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy: Basic Principles, Protocols, and Procedures (3rd ed.). New York, NY: The Guilford Press
Shapiro, F., Kaslow, F. W., Maxfield, L. (2007). Handbook of EMDR and family therapy processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Inc
Shapiro, F., & Forrest, M. S. (2016, 2004, 1997). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: The breakthrough “Eye Movement” therapy for overcoming anxiety, stress, and trauma (3rd ed.) New York, NY: Basic Books.
Shapiro, F., & Laliotis, D. (2015). EMDR therapy for trauma-related disorders. In U. Schnyder & M. Cloitre (Eds.), Evidence based treatments for trauma-related psychological disorders: A practical guide for clinicians (pp. 205-228). New York, NY: Springer.
Shapiro, F., Snyker, E., & Maxfield, L. (2004). EMDR: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. In F. W. Kaslow & T. Patterson (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioral approaches (pp. 248-254). West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Shapiro, F., & Solomon, R. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: Neurocognitive information processing. In G. S. Everley (Ed.), Innovations in disaster and trauma psychology: Applications in emergency services and disaster response (pp. 216-237). Elliot City, MD: Chevron Publishing.
Shapiro, F., & Solomon, R. (2010). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. In I. B. Weiner & W. E. Craighead (Eds.), The Corsini encyclopedia of psychology, (4th ed., Vol. 2, pp. 629-632). Hoboken, NY: Wiley.
Shapiro, F., & Solomon, R. (2017). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy. In S. N. Gold, J. M. Cook, & C. J. Dalenberg (Eds.), Handbook of trauma psychology: Vol 2. Trauma practice. Washington, D. C. The American Psychological Association.
Shapiro, F., Wesselmann, D., & Mevissen, L. (2017). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy (EMDR). In M.A. Landolt, M. Cloitre, & U. Schnyder (Eds.), Evidence based treatments for trauma-related disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 273-298). New York, NY: Springer.
Solomon, R. M., & Shapiro, F. (1997). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: A therapeutic tool for trauma and grief. In C. R. Figley & B. E. Bride (Eds.), Death and trauma: The traumatology of grieving. The series in trauma and loss (pp. 231-247). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis.
Wesselmann, D., & Shapiro, F. (2013). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing. In J. Ford & C. Courtois (Eds.). Treating complex traumatic stress disorders in children and adolescents (pp. 203-224). New York, NY: Guilford Press.