The Impact and Adaptation of EMDR Therapy on the Taiwanese Deaf University Students (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

The Impact and Adaptation of EMDR Therapy on the Taiwanese Deaf University Students

Using EMDR with deaf adolescents adapting to hearing-dominated universities helped students stabilizing emotional arousal quickly.

Article Abstract

“Deaf adolescents from schools for the deaf face a difficult challenge adapting to hearing-dominated universities. They harbor stress or trauma from past interactions with the hearing. To understand the impact and adaptation of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy on such students, a pilot study and a formal study were executed for this case study using Taiwanese sign language for all interactions. The client’s changes were documented through diverse sources, while adherence to the standard protocol was verified using the EMDR Fidelity Rating Scale. Results showed that EMDR therapy helped the client in the formal study to maintain calm with the hearing and become capable of overcoming communication barriers, stabilizing emotional arousal quickly, and finally appreciating his academic journey. This study examined the adaptation of EMDR’s various stages for the Deaf and the beneficial environmental support for Deaf university students.”

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Jhai, Z. (2024). The Impact and Adaptation of EMDR Therapy on the Taiwanese Deaf University Students. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 18(1), 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0043

 


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EMDR in Three Adults With Severe Intellectual Disability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Evaluation (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

EMDR in Three Adults With Severe Intellectual Disability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Evaluation

Effectiveness of EMDR therapy using the storytelling method in three adults with severe intellectual disability and PTSD.

Article Abstract

“Research on trauma treatment in people with severe intellectual disability (SID; IQ 20–35) is scarce, and controlled studies are lacking. This study examined the effectiveness of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy using the storytelling method in three adults with SID and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A multiple-baseline design was used to examine the effects of EMDR storytelling method on PTSD classification, PTSD symptoms, challenging behaviors, and dysfunctional behaviors in three adults with SID and PTSD. EMDR resulted in a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms, challenging behaviors, and most dysfunctional behaviors. None of the participants had a PTSD classification anymore after EMDR. Findings suggest EMDR to be effective in the treatment of PTSD in adults with SID. Follow-up research with a larger sample size is required.”

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Hoogstad, A., Mevissen, L., & Didden, R. (2024). EMDR in Three Adults With Severe Intellectual Disability and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Evaluation. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 18(1), 18-30. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0042

 


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Dr. Louise Maxfield—A Memorial Former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of EMDR Practice and Research (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Dr. Louise Maxfield—A Memorial Former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of EMDR Practice and Research

After 15 years, Louise Maxfield retired as editor-in-chief of the Journal. On November 13, 2023, Louise passed away.

Article Description

“One person who walked side by side with Francine was Louise Maxfield, a true icon and legend of our EMDR international community…As JEMDR editor-in-chief, Louise was also formidable. She had that extraordinary ability to inspire on the one hand and rigorously challenge on the other…After 15 years, with great sadness, Louise retired as editor-in-chief…On November 13, 2023, Louise passed away, at the young age of 75. We deeply mourn the passing of our dear friend, mentor, and guide. We are truly indebted to her enormous and inspiring contribution. We thank her for the pioneering part she played to us and the entire EMDR international community.”

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Farrell, D., & Rydberg, J.. (2024). Dr. Louise Maxfield—A Memorial Former Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of EMDR Practice and Research. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 18(1), 2-4. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2024-0001

 


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The Distancing Approach: A Comprehensive Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

The Distancing Approach: A Comprehensive Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

The Distancing Approach, a psychotherapy rooted in EMDR, aims to address complex symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Article Abstract

“The Distancing Approach is a comprehensive psychotherapy, rooted in the principles and practices of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy. It aims to address the complex symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), through insight enhancement, skill development, desensitization of triggers, and reprocessing of related memories. Building on prior OCD research with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and with EMDR, it combines EMDR’s Phobia Protocol with two new EMDR-derived techniques: the Distancing Technique and Future Rehearsal. The Distancing Technique is designed to develop insight through the creation of adaptive coping statements. It identifies and strengthens these adaptive statements in EMDR’s preparation phase so that they can be available as resources during EMDR’s reprocessing phases and in daily life. Future Rehearsal is a technique that combines EMDR methods with CBT’s exposure response prevention to desensitize OCD triggers. EMDR’s Phobia Protocol is applied according to standard procedures. Consistent with the psychotherapy approach, the therapeutic relationship is optimized, and treatment is individualized, to best meet the needs of the client. A case example illustrates the application of the approach.”

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Krentzel, C. P., & Tattersall, J. (2024). The Distancing Approach: A Comprehensive Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Psychotherapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0035

 


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Clients’ Experiences of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Clients’ Experiences of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy

This study explores clients’ unique phenomenological experiences of EMDR and their meaning-making in adult mental health service in Ireland.

Article Abstract

“This study aimed to explore clients’ unique phenomenological experiences of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) and their meaning-making regarding this therapeutic approach within the context of an adult mental health service in Ireland. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to collect and analyze data from six interviews with individuals who had completed an EMDR intervention. Three Group Experiential Themes were identified: “Trapped in trauma—self-disorganization,” “Being ‘in’ the process of processing,” and “Moving on—adaptive resolution of trauma.” The study provides an in-depth insight into clients’ experiences of EMDR in terms of the many processes and outcomes, and clinical implications are discussed.”

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Hammond, M., Ryan, C. & Dwyer, A. (2023). Clients’ Experiences of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(4), 250-264. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0018

 


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EMDR Therapy in Specific Phobia of Vomiting (SPOV) (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

EMDR Therapy in Specific Phobia of Vomiting (SPOV)

This article provides an overview of specific phobia of vomiting and application of EMDR with the flash-forward technique as a treatment.

Article Abstract

“Specific phobia of vomiting (SPOV), commonly known as emetophobia, is a subtype of “Specific Phobia” (other type) in the DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Individuals with this condition have a persistent and disproportionate fear of vomiting that runs a chronic course limiting their social, occupational, and leisure-based functioning. There are several case reports of SPOV demonstrating positive therapeutic outcomes and a single randomized controlled trial (RCT) demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) incorporating exposure work and imagery rescripting. However, a large internet survey also suggests that most SPOV individuals would not try exposure treatments. This article provides the readers with an overview of SPOV followed by the application of the standard eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) protocol supplemented with the flash-forward technique as a treatment for SPOV using a single-case example. Client outcomes were monitored for 20 months with a self-rating tool, the SPOV inventory, and associated comorbidity assessed using a patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and generalized anxiety disorder rating scales.”

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Begum, M. (2023). EMDR Therapy in Specific Phobia of Vomiting (SPOV). Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(4), 239-249. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0010

 


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Comparing the Predictors of Disengagement for Trauma Therapy (TF-CBT and EMDR) in an Adult Mental Health Service (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Comparing the Predictors of Disengagement for Trauma Therapy (TF-CBT and EMDR) in an Adult Mental Health Service

This meta-analysis evaluates predictors for disengagement in clients through either CBT or EMDR trauma therapy in adults.

Article Abstract

“In this retrospective service evaluation, the predictors of disengagement from trauma therapy are investigated, as previous research suggests that disengagement rates may be higher than other therapies. Clients on the posttraumatic stress disorder treatment pathway received either eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) or trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy (TF-CBT). Preexisting data from 105 cases at a National Health Service Adult Community Mental Health Team were collected, and disengagement rates were compared based on demographic therapy and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales scores to investigate the impact they have on disengagement rates. Results found a different proportion of those receiving EMDR disengaged (62.8%) than those who received TF-CBT (55.3%), though this difference was nonsignificant. There was a significant association between disengagement rates and depressed mood (77.8% in moderate to severe group vs 51.2% in no to mild group). There was also a significant association between disengagement rates and living conditions (84.0% in minor to severe group vs 53.7% in no problem group). No significant associations were found between disengagement and demographic variables (age, gender, and ethnicity) or time spent waiting for intervention. The implications of these findings and practice recommendations are discussed.”

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Hayward, D., Richardson, T., Beattie, D. & Bayliss, P. (2023). Comparing the Predictors of Disengagement for Trauma Therapy (TF-CBT and EMDR) in an Adult Mental Health Service. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(4), 216-227. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0004

 


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Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Individuals With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Individuals With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review

This study looks at children, young people, and those with neurodevelopmental disorders who are at higher risk of facing traumatic events.

Article Abstract

“Children, young people, and adults with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), including autism and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are known to be at risk of experiencing high rates of traumatic events. EMDR is an evidence-based psychological therapy for trauma and mental health conditions in the general population. A systematic search was conducted to find research studies using EMDR with individuals with certain NDDs across the lifespan. A total of 15 studies were included in this review, 13 of which were case studies/series. Although findings are inconclusive as to whether EMDR can be effective for individuals with NDDs, it is encouraging that all the studies included in the review reported a reduction in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. However, more robust research examining the effectiveness of EMDR for people with NDDs is needed.”

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Sopena, S., Silva, J., Miller, C., Hedderly, T. & van Diest, C. (2023). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Individuals With Neurodevelopmental Disorders: A Systematic Review. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(4), 200-215. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0005

 


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Online Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Chronic Pain: A Pilot Controlled Trial (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Online Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Chronic Pain: A Pilot Controlled Trial

The study provides a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of online eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR).

Article Abstract

“The study aimed to provide a preliminary evaluation of the acceptability and effectiveness of online eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) compared with a waitlist control (WLC). A pilot nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted. Eighteen adults experiencing chronic pain completed the study (nEMDR = 10; ncontrol = 8). The intervention group received up to 10 weekly sessions of online EMDR. The control group received treatment as usual. Participants completed baseline and post-intervention measures assessing posttraumatic stress, pain severity, interference, and catastrophizing, and depression levels. Additionally, the online EMDR group participants provided feedback on intervention acceptability and satisfaction. The online EMDR group demonstrated significant reductions in both trauma and pain-related outcomes; depression levels did not significantly change. No significant change was observed in any outcome within the control group. After the WLC also received the intervention, additional analysis results demonstrated similar effects but did not reach statistical significance, except for depression. Overall, online EMDR appeared acceptable and positively received by participants. The study provides preliminary support that online delivery of EMDR may reduce trauma- and pain-related outcomes in individuals experiencing chronic pain. Further large-scale research is warranted to substantiate these findings. Limitations and implications are discussed.”

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Rosser, B. A., Agostinis, A. & Bond, J. (2023). Online Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy for Chronic Pain: A Pilot Controlled Trial. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(4), 186-199. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0009

 


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Evaluating Outcomes and Experience of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing Through a National Health Service Trust’s Staff Support Service (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Evaluating Outcomes and Experience of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing Through a National Health Service Trust’s Staff Support Service

This service evaluation offers preliminary support for the use of EMDR as a useful intervention for healthcare professionals.

Article Abstract

Aim: A National Health Service (NHS) mental health trust developed a pathway offering eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to healthcare professionals (HCPs). This research aimed to evaluate whether EMDR was linked to improvements in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sought to understand the experiences of service users.

Method: Pre- and post-outcome measures of the Impact of Events Scale—Revised (IES-r), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), and Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WASAS) were evaluated. Subsequently, a feedback survey was circulated to those who had accessed the service.

Results: Analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in measures of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and functioning. The service was rated highly for accessibility and experience. Perceived treatment effectiveness was variable; however, reliving symptoms and sickness absence were reduced, and improvements made during therapy were reportedly maintained.

Conclusion: This service evaluation offers preliminary support for the use of EMDR as a useful intervention for HCP. Recommendations that may be more broadly applicable for service development and considerations for future research are discussed.”

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Meredith, F., Banting, R., Wilcox, D., & Paskell, R. (2023). Evaluating Outcomes and Experience of Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing Through a National Health Service Trust’s Staff Support Service. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(4), 228-238. https://www.doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2022-0058.

 


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Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Single-Case Experiment Testing the Effect on Persistent Negative Evaluation of Fatigue (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Single-Case Experiment Testing the Effect on Persistent Negative Evaluation of Fatigue

EMDR therapy can reduce emotional distress associated with chronic fatigue, but it is unclear whether it can change its negative evaluation.

Article Abstract

Background: While cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) can lead to the normalization of fatigue levels and resumption of activities, a subgroup of patients still evaluates fatigue negatively.

Objective: The objective was to investigate whether eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy leads to a less negative evaluation of fatigue.

Method: This was a randomized single-case experimental study. Five CFS/ME patients (all female, mean age of 35 years), who had completed CBT but still evaluated fatigue negatively, received EMDR therapy. The primary outcome, that is, negative evaluation of fatigue, was assessed daily (three items, e.g., “My fatigue is frustrating”). During EMDR therapy sessions, distress in response to a selected image was measured. Clinical assessments were performed before, directly after, and one month after EMDR therapy.

Results: During EMDR therapy sessions, all patients reported high distress related to memories of having CFS/ME. EMDR therapy led to a reduction in this distress. Daily measured negative evaluations of fatigue declined in three patients, albeit not significantly. Three of five patients showed clinically relevant improvement in evaluations of fatigue on clinical pre-/post measures.

Conclusion: EMDR therapy can reduce emotional distress associated with fatigue, but it is unclear whether it can change its negative evaluation.”

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Bouman, S., Müller, F., Onghena, P., & Knoop, H. (2023). Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Single-Case Experiment Testing the Effect on Persistent Negative Evaluation of Fatigue. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(3), 106–118. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2022-0060

 


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Transcriptional Modulation of Stress-Related Genes in Association with Early Life Stress Exposure and Trauma-Focused Psychotherapy in Treatment-Resistant Depression Patients (Journal of EMDR Practice and Research)

Transcriptional Modulation of Stress-Related Genes in Association with Early Life Stress Exposure and Trauma-Focused Psychotherapy in Treatment-Resistant Depression Patients

Early life stress (ELS) is associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Trauma-focused psychotherapy benefits TRD patients with ELS.

Article Abstract

“Early life stress (ELS) is associated with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), and trauma-focused psychotherapy benefits TRD patients exposed to ELS. We explored peripheral modulations of stress-response genes (nuclear receptor subfamily 3 group C member 1 [NR3C1], FK506-binding protein 5 [FKBP5], and serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 [SGK1]) in relation to ELS and symptom changes during psychotherapy. Forty-one TRD patients participated and 21 patients underwent trauma-focused psychotherapy, comprising eye movement desensitization and reprocessing or trauma-focused cognitive behavioral therapy. We used the Montgomery-Ã…sberg Depression Rating Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the Beck Anxiety Inventory for symptom evaluation, the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire for ELS assessment, and the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for transcript analysis. We found higher NR3C1 and FKBP5 baseline mRNA levels in patients with maternal neglect. Trauma-focused psychotherapy induced modifications in transcripts’ levels and symptom amelioration along psychotherapy correlated with genes’ modulations. Transcript levels for all genes were higher in patients relapsing after 24 weeks.”

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Silva, R. C., Dattilo, V., Perusi, G., Mazzelli, M., Maffioletti, E., Bazzanella, R., Bortolomasi, M., Cattaneo, A., Gennarelli, M., & Minelli, A. (2023). Transcriptional Modulation of Stress-Related Genes in Association with Early Life Stress Exposure and Trauma-Focused Psychotherapy in Treatment-Resistant Depression Patients. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 17(3), 119–138. https://doi.org/10.1891/EMDR-2023-0019

 


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